Meta: Medicine is a field of applied science related to the art of healing, encompassing many methods of health care to maintain and restore the body from prevention and healing. Until now, many researchers believe that the history of medicine may have been born along with the history of disease arose and the history of the physician. In the cave of the Three Brothers (La Grotte des Trois Frères) people have found a painting about 17 thousand years ago depicting a retired witch in treatment.
Sapo: Medicine develops over the years and by regions, quickly or slowly depending on the development of culture, economy, civilization and characteristics of each ethnic group. There are many ways to analyze the medical history of the world, analysis by region, analysis by time, analysis based on the advancement of medical approaches and research and development. This last method is simpler and clearer. According to this method of analysis, researchers analyze the history of world medicine into four stages. They are
In the early Roman times, the ancient Greeks believed that sickness was “a punishment of the gods” and that healing was a “gift from the gods”. It was realized that the mind playing a role is important in healing, and it can also be the sole that cause the disease. In that ancient period, Roman medicine had many mythological properties. Whenever sick, the Romans went to the temple to pray to the gods Minerva, Diana, Hygiea …
Spiritual Medicine (VHW) is a healing phenomenon based on mystical powers. During this period it was believed that illness was caused by divine rebuke. When sick, people rely on “teacher Mo”, “priest” to pray to the gods for recovery.
The history of medicine in this period is recorded very little and ambiguous. Medical advances during this period developed in isolated aregions. Due to the lack of information exchange and no medical schools, progress is not much and asynchronous for a long time.
Spiritual healing with super powers
Today there are still many places in the world where this medical phase exists, including Vietnam. Medicine in this period is ineffective because it is based on superstition, so there has been no significant progress in the long term. Gradually it has been replaced by more progressive, more effective medicine, the Experimental Medicine Stage. This substitution took place on separate regions and thanks to a number of outstanding, spontaneous characters in each place.
This is the period when the brilliant, intelligent physicians scattered in many parts of the world accumulate their own experiences, bring them into the examination and treatment to make treatment more effective. They observe, accumulate experience and heal based on personal experience or passed down. This period developed strongly in Central – India.
In this stage people rely solely on experience for diagnosis and treatment. The physicians noted people with liver pain have jaundice. When you have jaundice (liver pain), the pill ‘A’ will decrease. Physicians could not explain why liver pain was jaundice, or some doctors tried to explain according to their own thoughts (not sure if it was correct or not). Besides, this is just personal experience in some cases, so it is easy to be subjective and misleading.
Experienced medicine has long been recorded in many ancient civilizations such as India, Egypt, Greece or China.
Scientific Medicine or Experimental Medicine
Hyppocrate (460-377 BC) is considered to be the ancestor of medicine that is inherited today as Western medicine. He is one of the most medically valuable and arguably the founder of experimental medicine. He is also credited as the first to found the medical school, as well as the maker of the Hippocrates oath (later added by Celsus). Galen laid the groundwork for medical reasoning. After the fall of the Roman empire and the beginning of the Middle Ages, the healers in the Muslim world took over and made a great breakthrough for the medical profession. Thanks to the support from an Arabic translation of works by Hippocrates and Galen.
During this period, physicians researched and explained medical phenomena according to science. People answer the questions why patients with liver pain have jaundice? How does a medicine work? Physicians are also scientists who discover and prove pathogens, mechanisms of disease and process therapeutic drugs that have a real effect on the physiological transformation of the disease for more effective healing. From that background, scientists learn more and more deeply the sources of disease and develop suitable treatments.
Modern Medicine Stage
Modern medicine is a new trend that aims to establish the most effective diagnostic and treatment process by using statistical “systematic review” and “meta-analysis”. It develops the advancement of modern information science, which collects and analyzes vast amounts of data, huge normative evidence and then disseminates it to healthcare providers or clinicians. One problem with this “optimal” approach is that it can be seen as a dramatic approach, meaning it will make many different assessments. The ‘Cochrane Collaboration’ Program report on this opinion movement in 2001 stated that out of 160 copies of “systematic reviews” by Cochrane, based on at least two reviews, 21.3% equal the control was incomplete, 20% was ineffective, and 22.55% evidence was positive.
Modern medicine develops constantly
The development history of World Medicine from ancient times up to now has gone through many stages of development. The development of Medicine is influenced by many factors like regional customs, national mind – physiology, political regime, historical changes, economics, development of science and public Technology … Some historical researchers divide the history of medicine by regions such as Greek – Roman – Egyptian medicine, Chinese – Near Eastern medicine, Oriental medicine, Western medicine or by time, Ancient medicine Modern Medicine, Medieval Medicine, Modern Medicine …